scan range of IP addresses

nmap is an amazing utility. With all of it’s flags and options it really gives you the power to know what is out in a network.

I used this to do a simple ping scan of my home network:

# nmap -nsP
Starting Nmap 5.00 ( ) at 2013-08-22 09:06 MST
Host is up (0.0051s latency).
MAC Address: 00:18:39:4E:82:60 (Cisco-Linksys)
Host is up.
Nmap done: 256 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 5.51 seconds

Hosts that allow icmp echo requests will show up. I can see my router and my workstation, but no other hosts (no other pingable hosts at least). I’m looking for a RPi that I recently plugged into the network. It doesn’t look like it’s up. Time to drag out the spare monitor and keyboard…


test bandwidth throughput using iperf

Testing bandwidth between 2 hosts can be helpful to determine maximum transfer rates, and how much bandwidth can be pushed. The iperf utility is a great option for this. Set up one side as a listening server and the other side as a client. In this scenario I want to test an OpenVPN tunnel between a Raspberry Pi and a Vyatta server. The layout looks like this:

Laptop --(wireless)--> RPi --(wireless)--> Linksys router -> Enterasys router -> Cable Modem -> ISP -> INTERNET -> Vyatta -> remote host

Start iperf in server mode on the remote host listening for UDP datagrams:

# iperf -s -u
Server listening on UDP port 5001
Receiving 1470 byte datagrams
UDP buffer size:   110 KByte (default)

Start up the client. The -c flag tells it what remote host to connect to with iperf, the -u makes it use UDP, the -b tells it what bandwidth to try to achieve, and the -t sets how many seconds to run for:

# iperf -c -u -b 1000K -t30

As the test runs, the server and client will output the rates. Here’s the server side output:

[  3] local port 5001 connected with port 40816
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth       Jitter   Lost/Total Datagrams
[  3]  0.0-30.0 sec  3.57 MBytes    998 Kbits/sec  14.738 ms    4/ 2552 (0.16%)

So we were able to push a full 1 Mbps and only lost 4 datagrams, that’s pretty good. I would say this can comfortably push 1Mbps. (Side note: top reported openvpn process on RPi was at 9% CPU utilization) Let’s try for 2Mbps:

# iperf -c -u -b 2000K -t30

And the output:

[  4] local port 5001 connected with port 56707
[  4]  0.0-30.0 sec  6.21 MBytes  1.74 Mbits/sec  7.346 ms  670/ 5103 (13%)

We were able to achieve 1.74 Mbps, but we lost 13% of the traffic. That is unacceptable! I would run again at 1500K and narrow in where exactly the break point is for throughput. To find the bottleneck you can run iperf from every (Linux) host in the chain to pinpoint the limitation. I suspect it could be the upload speed of my home internet connection, or the poor wireless signal of the client side of the RPi.